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Safety Planning Practice Guide


    This Practice Guide outlines the process for the development and implementation of a safety plan within Safer Family Services’ Intensive Family Services. An initial safety plan is developed at the commencement of contact (within the first three visits) with a family when high or very high risk to the safety of the child (or unborn child) has been identified. The safety plan must address immediate safety issues and outline what needs to happen to ensure the child will be safe in their own family.

    This practice guide provides guidance about:

    • when to develop an initial safety plan
    • engaging with the child and family to develop the safety plan
    • identifying safety concerns, acknowledging children's right to safety
    • identifying family strengths and protective factors when setting safety goals
    • maintaining safety throughout the case management process
    • reviewing progress of the safety plan

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    Keeping children safe and reducing the need for involvement with statutory child protection services is a core aim for the Child and Family Support System (CFSS). This Practice Guide outlines the ‘how to’ in undertaking safety planning, with a focus on the development of the initial safety plan. The process of completing the safety plan provides an opportunity for practitioners to have an open and transparent conversation about immediate safety issues with a family. It supports a family to think about their child’s immediate safety and develop strategies to minimise the impact of situations that pose a risk to their child living safely at home. This Practice Guide is applicable to unborn children, recognising Safer Family Services’ commitment to ensuring infants and children have the best possible start to life who may otherwise be at risk of adverse events.

    A safety plan must:

    • be actively considered from the commencement of contact with the child and family and be completed by the end of the third visit with the family
    • be documented on the ‘Safety Plan Tool: Our Family Safety Plan’ as per Appendix 1
    • be developed in collaboration with the child, family and the family’s extended support network
    • recognise the cultural strengths and opportunities of the child and family
    • describe the safety concerns that prompted the referral for the child
    • identify achievable safety goals to address each concern
    • outline what the family, practitioner and members of the support network and kinship network must do to ensure the child’s immediate safety in the home
    • be clear about whether there are strategies that the child can use if feeling unsafe, such as who the child may be able to speak to
    • be recorded in clear and family centred language that is understood by the child, family members and extended support network
    • state how the plan will be monitored and reviewed
    • be signed and provided to the child (if appropriate), family and any other person involved in supporting the plan and child's safety (where safe and appropriate)
    • be uploaded on C3MS within 24 hours

    If unable to engage with the child and family in a safety planning discussion, the practitioner must consult with their supervisor to discuss how a plan for safety will be established to support the child’s safety. This may include discussions around assertive engagement strategies, other services or support networks involved with the family and/or an appropriate escalation strategy.

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    Key Concepts for Practice

    The safety plan must be co-created with the child and family and by an informed safety network (Signs of Safety – child protection framework 2011).

    To develop a safety plan, practitioners must use an inquiry approach, building on existing safety within the kinship or family group, wherever possible. The safety plan supports conversations such as ‘why we are here’, and ‘how we will work together’.

    Developing a safety plan can be overwhelming for families. For some families this may be the first time they have discussed the issues raised or considered the behaviour(s) of concern to be a worry. For others, particularly when violence is present and ongoing, it may not be safe to discuss the issues together and separate sessions may be required for each family member.  Wherever possible and appropriate, planning sessions with the family are important to build a plan that is ‘owned’ by the family.

    The conversation must begin with a clear and concise description of the concerns identified and the reasons why SFS services are involved.  This sets expectations for a clear and transparent working relationship.  It is important to manage this conversation carefully and be mindful of the impact on the safety of the child, on other adults and children in the home and on the developing therapeutic relationship. The discussions between practitioners, children and families about risk and safety are crucial to building an open connection and mutual understanding about why SFS practitioners are present, and to build trust within the relationship.

    Cultural safety is essential to our practice approach. It is important to communicate with families that the aim is to support children staying safely within their homes, strongly connected to family, culture, community and identity.

    Children are at the centre of all safety decisions. A meaningful safety plan is created out of an ongoing and often difficult process that is undertaken by the family and professionals. Focus is on what specifically is needed to ensure that the child is safe. The process includes encouraging the family to lead a discussion about existing strengths and supports and what would assist in keeping children safe within the home. The strength of the safety plan is the ability to create safety goals that sit alongside support networks that can assist the family to build on existing strengths and address risk concerns.

    At the heart of this work is a healing approach. We must take an inquiry approach, focusing on family-led discussions. We must commit to actively listening to the voices of children and families throughout the process, recognising their strengths and supports that are used to keep children safe (Signs of Safety – child protection framework 2011).

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    Developing the Safety Plan

    The development of the safety plan is a process of creating a road map to a place where the child can live safely within their family, community and culture. Developing a safety plan for the child and family works toward:

    • a shared responsibility between family, professionals and services to keep children safe at home
    • recognising the existing strengths and safety afforded by kinship, family and community
    • keeping concerns and worries for children in view and identifying who is accountable for agreed actions and behaviours
    • actively engaging individuals to take and accept responsibility to change behaviour that reduces risks for children and increases their safety
    • recognising that it is a collective response to children’s safety, and it is not the responsibility of one individual/ parent/ practitioner
    • a shared understanding of what is required from whom and by when to ensure children are safe in their own family
    • consistency in our practice and approach with children and families

    When developing a safety plan, practitioners should reflect on the following questions:

    • are the child's safety needs at the centre of the safety plan?
    • is the child’s voice represented in the safety plan?
    • is the child clear about what action to take if they feel unsafe?
    • does the child feel able to take such action?
    • are the family active participants in the development of the safety plan?
    • have the family been told about the severity of the safety concerns identified? Do they understand the concern and the risks associated?
    • can the family see their strengths, uniqueness, culture and identity reflected in the safety plan? How do we know this?
    • does everyone mentioned within the safety plan, understand and agree to their part of the journey toward, or building on, safety within the home?
    • do the family have a copy of the safety plan?  If not, is this clearly documented?
    • what external agencies are listed as part of the plan (if any) and do they have a copy of the plan?
    • are each of the family member’s safety considered in the development of the safety plan?

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    Cultural Considerations

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and families

    SFS practitioners acknowledge the historical and ongoing impact of colonisation, dispossession, genocide, forced removal policies (Stolen Generations) and practices such as protection, segregation and assimilation on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The resulting intergenerational and complex trauma continues to impact individuals, families and communities. This can manifest as distrust and fear of agencies, particularly mainstream government agencies, as these are directly linked to previous harmful policies and practices. These experiences may cause individuals and families to be reluctant to engage. With this knowledge, engagement can be adapted in culturally responsive and culturally safe ways for Aboriginal children and families.

    Cultural consultation should occur prior to commencing engagement with a family to gain knowledge of the cultural context in which risks are raised and to guide the response and service intervention. In ensuring cultural due diligence has occurred by the referring agency, at the time of referral, there should be information pertaining to:

    • child’s identity and language/nation group
    • child and family’s connection to culture and country
    • language spoken within the home
    • preferred communication/engagement style for the family
    • has the child/ family engaged with Aboriginal services and do they preference Aboriginal services?

    Consultation with wider Aboriginal kinship systems such as cultural decision makers /cultural authorities, community Elders, Aboriginal workers, Aboriginal community controlled organisations or staff in other organisations that know the family may also take place to assist in approaching family members and working in flexible ways to build rapport with children and families. These networks may be understood using eco mapping tools.

    If you are speaking with an Aboriginal person whose first language is not English, it is also important to seek advice about appropriate communication protocols. A practitioner may need an interpreter to ensure that language barriers do not compromise the quality of service.

    Culturally and Linguistically Diverse children and families

    When working with culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) clients, refugees and new arrivals, it is important that practitioners understand how the migration experience may impact on their engagement with services.

    Further consideration includes:

    • understanding any traditions and practices that may need to be considered
    • understanding of respectful engagement for CALD families, inclusive of gender appropriate discussion and where and who can participate in discussions (such as family decision makers).
    • recognising that some families may not feel comfortable having practitioners working in their home. This may be underpinned by:
      • a fear or suspicion of authorities and government officials based on pre-migration experiences
      • a reluctance to seek support because of the stigma associated with seeking help from outside of the family/community group
      • a fear of jeopardising the person or family’s residency status in Australia
      • a previous experience of culturally insensitive interventions by professionals
      • cultural differences around power and gender.

    Before meeting with a family, consultation should occur with cultural consultants, workers or other organisations who have worked effectively with the family. It is important to ensure that any cultural protocols are observed while working with the family. Where possible a worker from the community or someone with cultural authority should accompany workers on home visits, particularly in the early stages of engagement.

    Effective communication recognises that different approaches and strategies may be required as well as sensitivity to the role of both verbal and non-verbal cues. If English is not a caregivers / parent’s first language additional time or a more flexible approach may be needed to support their participation.

    A practitioner may need an interpreter to ensure that there is clarity in all discussions and that families' wishes are heard and understood, and decisions and processes are made clear. Due to strong linkages in CALD communities in South Australia, some local interpreters may be from the family’s local community or within their own family and could result in reprisal from the community. Tele-interpreters should be utilised in these circumstances.

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    Regional managers, Supervisors and Senior Staff are responsible for:

    • supporting clinical case management processes that plan for a child's safety at the commencement of service delivery
    • strengthening safety planning through clinical supervision, practice reflection and training
    • guiding and supporting practitioners in completing the safety plan with the child/family/community as active participants
    • ensuring staff know their obligations to continually monitor and respond to risks and to do so in collaboration with children, families, communities and service partners
    • guiding practitioners through having difficult conversations with families and to reflect on their practice
    • ensuring cultural consultations are available and regularly utilised at each point throughout the safety planning process
    • supporting an escalation process internally via High Risk Alert (HRA) to the General Manager and Clinical Practice Team when safety concerns are unable to be mitigated via the safety planning process.
    • initiating an escalation process to the DCP to seek their involvement when safety concerns are unable to be mitigated via SFS intervention and the safety planning process
    • reviewing the Safety Plan Tool in a timely manner

    Practitioners are responsible for:

    • adopting attitudes, behaviours and strategies that build on families' existing strengths to safely care for their children
    • respectfully, sensitively and safely engaging with children and their families and extended family members to develop the safety plan and being mindful when it may not be safe for members to participate and addressing equal participation ensuring cultural sensitivities and respectful cultural protocols are adhered to, and undertaking cultural consultations as required.
    • capturing the child’s voice and/or observations of the child to represent their voice in the safety plan by using age-appropriate tools (for unborn children, you are the voice of the child! Consider the child’s health, development and needs both in-utero and when born).
    • uploading the safety plan on C3MS within 24 hours of being completed either partially or fully, and send via C3MS workflow to Supervisor ‘for review’
    • distributing the safety plan to all participants nominated within the safety plan, including the child (if appropriate)
    • ensuring that all agencies nominated in the safety plan understand the shared responsibility for safety, even where it may not be their core business
    • seeking clinical supervision and/or consultation with a Supervisor if there is a delay in completing a safety plan in collaboration with the family (beyond the initial three visits)
    • ensuring C3MS case notes in relation to consultation when there has been or is anticipated to be a delay in completing the Safety Plan Tool are sent via workflow for review by the Regional Manager
    • submitting a High-Risk Alert form and consulting with the Clinical Practice Team when required, particularly if there is a delay in completing the safety plan and/or risk is unable to be mitigated by the safety planning process
    • Initiating a review of the plan, at any time that circumstances change or as identified by the child, family, or practitioner (within 6 to 8 weeks).
    • Discussing all relevant information with the carers/ parents to the extent possible without:
      • compromising the safety of the child or a parent/carer
      • without disclosing the notifier’s identity
    • If violence is still occurring within the home, that compromises the safety of any family member then consideration must be given to whether meetings need to occur separately with family members  (2.2.16 Signs of Safety - child protection practice framework)

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    Practice Strategies

    Prepare for the development of a safety plan

    • Review the referral request: Review the CFSS Pathways Assessment and information available on C3MS. Clarify information as required with the referrer or services involved with the family including:
      • child’s cultural identity and background
      • need for interpreter services
      • for Aboriginal families, is an Aboriginal practitioner preferred
    • Contact the person who made the referral: Ascertain the risks to the child and the family’s understanding of the risks, from the referrer’s perspective.
    • Consult with other services working with the family: Learn about the child and family’s experience in engaging with services. Build on understanding of risks, resilience, strengths and protective factors for the child and family and the best approach to engage with the child and family.
    • Consider if there is ongoing violence within the home: Consider the risk and safety concerns and discuss with your supervisor if a consultation with the Clinical Practice Team would be beneficial. Consider the safety of all members of the family to participate.
    • Consider other members of the family/kinship network that should participate in safety planning: When planning to meet with additional or extended family members, consider family dynamics and the safety of all participants to contribute.
    • Check for previous safety plans: Consider if information is available to suggest if it worked for the family in keeping the child safe and why/why not. Consider discussions to occur with family around if they are aware of whether a previous safety plan has been developed, whether it worked for them, and if they understand why they are being asked to develop another one.
    • Undertake effective cultural consultation: Be respectful to the family’s cultural background and undertake cultural consultation at multiple points throughout engagement, including other services or professionals that have worked with the family (see Cultural Considerations).
    • Raise case management challenges with your supervisor. If there are ongoing child safety concerns consider consultation with the Clinical Practice Team.

    Engage with the family

    Developing a safety plan with the family requires sensitivity and care, so engaging the family in a collaborative partnership is a crucial goal. Engagement is key to the safety planning process to enable exploration of the concerns and risks that have been reported.

    It is essential that discussions occur around child safety from the initial visit, and that a plan is in place with the family as soon as possible to support the child’s safety. The development of a safety plan may occur over several visits, however the Safety Plan Tool must be completed in collaboration by the end of your third visit with the family.

    • Contact the family in a timely way, using assertive engagement strategies: Engagement must occur with the child and family as soon as possible to support the safety of the child and reduce the likelihood of statutory intervention.
    • Establish respect: A family may be experiencing multiple and complex challenges and have varying levels of capacity to work with you.  Be empathic to the possible shame or guilt parents may experience in not being able to meet their children's safety and wellbeing needs.
    • Be open, truthful and clear about safety concerns: Some families will not be aware that concerns have been raised about the safety or wellbeing of their child. Be prepared to have difficult conversations with families about patterns of behaviour that place a child at risk. Practitioners must clearly explain using simple language:
      • the nature and severity of the risks identified at the time of referral
      • the role of the practitioner to work alongside the family to address the risks
      • the ‘bottom line’ (non-negotiables) from the agency perspective for safety to be met for the child(ren)
      • the possible involvement of the Department for Child Protection (DCP) if changes are not made to ensure a safe home environment for the child.
    • Maintain an inquiry approach: Actively listen to the child and family about what has occurred for them and is occurring in the home.  Learn about the family’s functioning, their strengths, protective factors and how they get through day to day.
    • Focus on the needs of the children: The first collective focus must be on the safety of the children within the home. This may include the safety of their primary care giver(s).
    • Focus on the family’s strengths: The intention of the safety plan is to build on the strengths and protective measures that already exist within the family.

    Work with the child and family to develop the safety plan

    Identify the risk and safety concerns – what are we worried about?

    • Work with the child and family to define the risk and safety concerns and record these on the plan: These should be recorded in simple language so that the child, family and practitioner are all clear on the fundamental safety issues that will be worked on. When preparing these statements:
      • identify what safety concerns the child or family may have
      • discuss the concerns identified in the CFSS Pathways Referral Assessment or as provided by the DCP or other sources (NB: ensure that notifiers are not identified).
      • prioritise focus for the safety plan on the family’s basic survival, safety and security needs first (Planning for safety with at-risk families: Resource guide for workers in intensive home-based family support programs), this includes issues such as domestic violence, parental substance abuse, homelessness and parental mental health problems. Some risks may be alleviated quickly, with additional advocacy or support
      • continuously aim to build on the child and family's understanding of the safety issues

    Identify family strengths - what’s working well?

    • Work with the child and family to identify their strengths and record these on the plan: This should focus on activities that the family already do that contribute to the safety and wellbeing of the child. Continually identify and encourage the family’s existing personal strengths and resources as much as possible, and record these on the safety plan.

    Prepare safety goals – what needs to happen?

    • Work with the family to prepare safety goals and record these on the plan: This must consider what needs to happen to keep the children safe. When developing these strategies:
    • Ensure that safety goals are action-based and clearly define who is responsible for doing what to ensure the child and family’s safety. Safety goals should:
      • be SMART, that is, specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time limited
        (2.2.16 Signs of Safety - child protection practice framework)
      • don’t (inadvertently) set families up for failure.
      • clearly outline the ‘bottom line’ actions that must be taken, from the practitioner's perspective, to ensure the safety of the child and relevant others in the home
      • be achieved in partnership and not place the responsibility of safety solely on the primary carers. This responsibility extends to all primary carers, adults, family and kinship networks and agencies working directly with the family. Working together and openly discussing risks, can help to increase awareness and build ‘buy in’.
      • for families experiencing family violence, focus on the responsibilities people have for being accountable for their behaviour. Support building understanding and insight into the impact family violence plays on the safety within the family.
    • Contact other parties identified in the plan by the child and family, and confirm their willingness, ability and suitability to participate in safety plan.
    • Developing an individual plan with the child:
      • In some circumstances it may be relevant for the child (age appropriate) to develop a plan with the practitioner that supports the practitioner with better understanding the child’s worries, views and ideas on how they may be best supported (see ‘Your plan for Safety: Child’s Plan Only’ in appendix 2).
      • In all situations, a safety plan at the family level must be completed, to ensure that focus remains on the responsibility that parents and other adults have in supporting a child’s safety and wellbeing. Actions discussed with the people identified in the plan to support the child’s safety must be accurately reflected within the safety plan completed at the family level.
      • Plans completed with the child must be uploaded on C3MS in a timely manner and sent via workflow to the Supervisor for review.
      • Consider resources that can be used to support understanding the child’s views and feelings, such as using Circles of Safety with the child (Circle of Safety and Support Tool - PDF 560 KB)

    Delays in development of an initial safety plan

    • Within the first three visits, all efforts must be taken to complete the Safety Plan Tool in collaboration with the child, family and supports.
    • At times, this may involve a verbal discussion occurring with the family about the safety concerns that have been identified, prior to completing the written Safety Plan Tool directly with the family.
      • This discussion needs to explicitly include the concerns identified and what needs to happen to ensure the child’s safety, using the questions from the Safety Plan Tool to support this discussion.
      • The practitioner is to record this discussion in the Safety Plan Tool and to provide a copy to the family as soon as possible, so that they have a written copy of the plan.
      • The Safety Plan Tool is to clearly note within the commitment / signature section of the plan, if the plan was not signed and/or not provided immediately to the family and the reason why (and plan / timeframe for when the plan will be provided to the family).
      • All steps undertaken in relation to safety plan process are to be documented on C3MS.
    • If a safety plan is not able to be completed within the first 3 visits with the family, consultation / supervision with the SFS Supervisor must occur promptly to plan for a service response to support the child’s safety. The consultation must:
      • outline the circumstances that has resulted in a delay in the safety plan being developed in collaboration with the family;
      • outline the risk and safety concerns;
      • note when the child was last sighted;
      • outline what needs to happen to keep the child safe;
      • be clearly case noted on C3MS under the relevant child/ren and with a clear naming convention that includes reference to ‘safety plan delay’;
      • be sent via workflow to the Regional Manager.
    • The practitioner is to continue using assertive engagement strategies and relationship-based practice strategies with the family to ensure that the Safety Plan Tool can be completed in collaboration with the family as soon as possible.
    • Practitioners and Supervisors are to consider their mandatory reporting obligations and consultation with the Clinical Practice Team when risk and safety concerns are unable to be mitigated by the safety planning process.

    Finalise the safety plan

    • Finalise the safety plan: When all parties are confident that the safety plan addresses all risk and safety concerns identified by the referrer, the child, the family and the practitioner, the safety plan can be finalised. For an initial safety plan, this must occur within the first three visits. To finalise the plan:
      • seek agreement from all parties involved in the implementation of the plan (the family, the child (if age appropriate) and any other person involved in its implementation). Gather agreement and commitment by signing or making a mark (child may wish to draw a picture).
      • if any family members do not wish to sign the safety plan, record this clearly on the safety plan with a rationale.
      • record the supervisor’s name and contact details (EIRD, Lived Experience Network, 31 March 2021). This enables the family to contact the supervisor if they need to seek additional information or to query or resolve issues or concerns that cannot be resolved with the practitioner directly.
      • explain to the family and record how the plan will be monitored and reviewed. This includes outlining the steps to take if goals are not working and worries continue or recommence. There should not be any surprises for the family and should be aware of steps as they are about to happen (EIRD, Lived Experience Network, 31 March 2021).
      • give a copy of the completed and signed safety plan to the parents, the child (if age appropriate) and any other person involved in its implementation.
    • Ensure understanding with all parties’ timeframes for actions within the safety plan: Confirm with the parents, child and other parent/s involved in the development of the safety plan, that the plan is in place immediately. If there is an alternative time frame/start date for any activity within the safety plan, ensure that this is clearly recorded on the plan and understood by all relevant parties. Explore whether the family (including the child) would like to have a meeting with professionals from the other agencies that are involved in the implementation of the plan.
    • Acknowledge ownership and bravery: The family must ‘own’ the plan (Planning for safety with at-risk families: Resource guide for workers in intensive home-based family support programs). It needs to be in the family’s words, unique to the family circumstances.  As practitioners, honour the bravery of the family working through a plan and stating the commitment this demonstrates to the children and family as something to be celebrated.
    • Record the safety plan on C3MS: the safety plan is to be uploaded onto C3MS within 24 hours. This includes all additions / amendments to safety plans that may be made over several visits. Record progress of safety plan within case note and any outstanding actions (for example, Initial safety plan attached – incomplete. Plan is to return to father’s home on [date] to finalise safety plan).
    • Workflow final safety plan to Supervisor for review.

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    Monitor and review progress

    • Regularly review and adapt the safety plan to reflect progress and changing circumstances: An initial review of the safety plan should take place during the assessment and case planning phase, around 6 - 8 weeks into engagement. The safety of the child must be monitored at every interaction. When assessing risk and reviewing safety during ongoing case management processes with the child and family, it is important to consider (Planning for safety with at-risk families: Resource guide for workers in intensive home-based family support programs)
      • Does the child feel safe? Does the child feel able to speak to you or another ‘safe’ adult?
      • What changes have been made? Acknowledge and celebrate successful steps toward safety.
      • What goals have yet to be attained? What needs to be put in place (resources, services, people) by whom and by when in order for the family to maintain safety, stability and security for the child?
      • What strategies are in place to cope with potential crisis? Are these included in the plan?

    Always remember your mandatory reporting obligations. Make a report to the Child Abuse Report Line 13 14 78 if a child’s safety is at immediate risk or if you receive new information that provides you suspicion on reasonable grounds that a child or young person is, or may be, at risk of harm.

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    Record Keeping

    Safety planning is crucial information that supports accountable practice for families and practitioners. Safety planning information should be saved in C3MS in a case note titled in a way that makes it readily identifiable.

    It is vital to ensure that the Safety Plan Tool is saved to C3MS under the relevant child/ren for whom it applies within 24 hours.

    Complete and accurate case notes outlining discussions that have occurred in relation to safety planning, are to be saved to C3MS under the relevant child/ren for whom it applies within 24 hours.

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    Australian Government, Australian Institute of Family Studies, Child and Family Community Australia, Planning for safety with at-risk families: resource guide for workers in intensive home-based family support programs, Iannos, M. & Antcliffe, G. May 2013

    Centre for Evidence and Implementation, Common Elements Background and Introduction, Explaining Common Elements, DHS, South Australia, Feb 2021

    Department for Human Services, Safe and well: Child and Family Support System Roadmap for Reform, 2021

    Department for Human Services, CFSS Practice Guide: Safe Home Visiting, 2021

    Department for Human Services, Child and Family Support System Program Level Outcomes Hierarchy, 2020

    Department of Human Services, Case Management Framework, Safer Family Services, 2020

    EIRD, Lived Experience Network, Group meeting held to discuss “Risk and Safety Plans” 31 March 2021

    Gee, G. (2016) Aboriginal Resilience and Recovery Questionnaire (ARRQ)

    Government of Western Australia, Dept, of Child Protection, The Signs of Safety Child Protection practice Framework, Sept 2011 – 2nd edition

    Government of Western Australia, Dept, of Child Protection, The Signs of Safety Child Protection Practice Framework, manuals Nov 2020 

    Leeds Safeguarding Children Board (2015) Guidance on the interface between Children’s Services Front Door and Early Help activity (including Common Assessment Framework CAF)

    Signs of Safety (website accessed 1 March 2021)

    SNAICC, National Voice for our Children (2017), Understanding and Applying Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Child Placement Principle.

    Turnell, A. (2009). Introduction to the Signs of Safety (DVD and Workbook), Resolutions Consultancy, Perth. Available at:

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